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Chapter V

Other behavioural and emotional disorders with onset usually occurring in childhood and adolescence - F98


A heterogeneous group of disorders that share the characteristic of an onset in childhood but otherwise differ in many respects. Some of the conditions represent well-defined syndromes but others are no more than symptom complexes that need inclusion because of their frequency and association with psychosocial problems, and because they cannot be incorporated into other syndromes.
    Excludes:
  • breath-holding spells ( R06.8 )
  • gender identity disorder of childhood ( F64.2 )
  • Kleine-Levin syndrome ( G47.8 )
  • obsessive-compulsive disorder ( F42.- )
  • sleep disorders due to emotional causes ( F51.- )
F98.0 Nonorganic enuresis
A disorder characterized by involuntary voiding of urine, by day and by night, which is abnormal in relation to the individual's mental age, and which is not a consequence of a lack of bladder control due to any neurological disorder, to epileptic attacks, or to any structural abnormality of the urinary tract. The enuresis may have been present from birth or it may have arisen following a period of acquired bladder control. The enuresis may or may not be associated with a more widespread emotional or behavioural disorder.
Enuresis (primary)(secondary) of nonorganic origin
Functional enuresis
Psychogenic enuresis
Urinary incontinence of nonorganic origin
    Excludes:
  • enuresis NOS ( R32 )
F98.1 Nonorganic encopresis
Repeated, voluntary or involuntary passage of faeces, usually of normal or near-normal consistency, in places not appropriate for that purpose in the individual's own sociocultural setting. The condition may represent an abnormal continuation of normal infantile incontinence, it may involve a loss of continence following the acquisition of bowel control, or it may involve the deliberate deposition of faeces in inappropriate places in spite of normal physiological bowel control. The condition may occur as a monosymptomatic disorder, or it may form part of a wider disorder, especially an emotional disorder (F93.-) or a conduct disorder (F91.-).
Functional encopresis
Incontinence of faeces of nonorganic origin
Psychogenic encopresis

Use additional code, if desired, to identify the cause of any coexisting constipation.
    Excludes:
  • encopresis NOS ( R15 )
F98.2 Feeding disorder of infancy and childhood
A feeding disorder of varying manifestations usually specific to infancy and early childhood. It generally involves food refusal and extreme faddiness in the presence of an adequate food supply, a reasonably competent caregiver, and the absence of organic disease. There may or may not be associated rumination (repeated regurgitation without nausea or gastrointestinal illness).
Rumination disorder of infancy
    Excludes:
  • anorexia nervosa and other eating disorders ( F50.- )
  • feeding:
  • difficulties and mismanagement ( R63.3 )
  • problems of newborn ( P92.- )
  • pica of infancy or childhood ( F98.3 )
F98.3 Pica of infancy and childhood
Persistent eating of non-nutritive substances (such as soil, paint chippings, etc.). It may occur as one of many symptoms that are part of a more widespread psychiatric disorder (such as autism), or as a relatively isolated psychopathological behaviour; only the latter is classified here. The phenomenon is most common in mentally retarded children and, if mental retardation is also present, F70-F79 should be selected as the main diagnosis.
F98.4 Stereotyped movement disorders
Voluntary, repetitive, stereotyped, nonfunctional (and often rhythmic) movements that do not form part of any recognized psychiatric or neurological condition. When such movements occur as symptoms of some other disorder, only the overall disorder should be recorded. The movements that are of a non self-injurious variety include: body-rocking, head-rocking, hair-plucking, hair-twisting, finger-flicking mannerisms, and hand-flapping. Stereotyped self-injurious behaviour includes repetitive head-banging, face-slapping, eye-poking, and biting of hands, lips or other body parts. All the stereotyped movement disorders occur most frequently in association with mental retardation (when this is the case, both should be recorded). If eye-poking occurs in a child with visual impairment, both should be coded: eye-poking under this category and the visual condition under the appropriate somatic disorder code.
Stereotype/habit disorder
    Excludes:
  • abnormal involuntary movements ( R25.- )
  • movement disorders of organic origin ( G20-G25 )
  • nail-biting ( F98.8 )
  • nose-picking ( F98.8 )
  • stereotypies that are part of a broader psychiatric condition ( F00-F95 )
  • thumb-sucking ( F98.8 )
  • tic disorders ( F95.- )
  • trichotillomania ( F63.3 )
F98.5 Stuttering [stammering]
Speech that is characterized by frequent repetition or prolongation of sounds or syllables or words, or by frequent hesitations or pauses that disrupt the rhythmic flow of speech. It should be classified as a disorder only if its severity is such as to markedly disturb the fluency of speech.
    Excludes:
  • cluttering ( F98.6 )
  • tic disorders ( F95.- )
F98.6 Cluttering
A rapid rate of speech with breakdown in fluency, but no repetitions or hesitations, of a severity to give rise to diminished speech intelligibility. Speech is erratic and dysrhythmic, with rapid jerky spurts that usually involve faulty phrasing patterns.
    Excludes:
  • stuttering ( F98.5 )
  • tic disorders ( F95.- )
F98.8 Other specified behavioural and emotional disorders with onset usually occurring in childhood and adolescence
Attention deficit disorder without hyperactivity
Excessive masturbation
Nail-biting
Nose-picking
Thumb-sucking
F98.9 Unspecified behavioural and emotional disorders with onset usually occurring in childhood and adolescence


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